A sunburn occurs when our skin is exposed to the sun for too long unprotected. The skin then reacts sensitively, it reddens, itches and hurts, and in worse cases, blisters and edema form. Several hours can pass before the full extent of a sunburn becomes visible.

Typical symptoms

The severity levels

  • itch
  • burn
  • warming
  • blistering
  • detachment of the skin

In a large or particularly intense sunburn victims often suffer from nausea, fever, headache and circulatory problems. This could be a sign of a sunstroke and must be medically clarified.
The natural protective mechanism of the skin against sun burn is the synthesis of skin pigments, also called melanin. The formation of melanin takes place in the melanocytes and is stimulated by UV radiation and supported by sanaSkin. These pigments color the skin brown, preventing the UV rays from entering the tissue. Unfortunately, this protection is not always sufficient, so that the sun’s rays can penetrate, unhindered, into the deeper skin layers, where they cause radiation damage. This inflammatory process, which resembles combustion, is called sunburn.
How fast sunburn actually occurs, depends among other things on the skin type. Very fair-skinned people with blond hair are more sensitive to sunrays than darker types.

The following five skin types and recommendations for length of stay in the sun are:

Skin type I: 

These include people with very light skin, red to blond hair and green or blue eyes. Those who belong to this skin type should not spend more than five to ten minutes in the sun unprotected, otherwise the self-protection time of the skin is exceeded. Then there is sunburn.

Skin Type II:

People with blond to dark blond hair, blue or green eyes and fair skin are grouped under this type. The self-protection time ranges up to 20 minutes.

Skin type III:

Typical for the type III are dark blond to brown hair and a darker skin color. Type III people can spend 20-30 minutes in the sun unprotected.

Skin Type IV:

If you have dark brown to black hair and darker skin, you can sunbathe for up to 40 minutes. After that, a break from the sun is needed.

Skin Type V: 

For 60 minutes, people with dark skin, black hair and brown hair can linger in the sun.

It has happened, what now?:

  • Get out of the sun.
  • Cool the burnt spots.
    If the skin is overheated, you should cool it down slowly. With children one has to be careful, they over cool easily. Likewise, for example, people with cardiovascular diseases have to deal carefully with the cooling. In the simplest case, step under a lukewarm shower for a few minutes. Attention: After that you should not scrub with a towel, this would only burden the already irritated skin even more. Blot gently or let your skin dry from the air. Another option is to wear a wet T-shirt. For this moisten a shirt with lukewarm – not cold – water and wring it out. Put it on for about 15 to 20 minutes, unless you start to freeze first. Hypothermia must be avoided.
  • Drink enough. Due to the burns, your body needs more fluid. Therefore, make sure to drink enough liquid – be it mineral water or diluted fruit juices. This not only replaces fluid loss, it also boosts the regeneration of the skin.
  • What else helps against sunburn: Cooling and pain-relieving gels such as Liquid Clean Gel is ideal for treating sunburn. The healing hydrogel absorbs quickly and moisturises the skin. This promotes the natural regeneration and reduces itching and burning.


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