Sewage Treatment Plants & Manure
Sewage Treatment Plants & Manure
1. Influence of Microbial Mixed Biocoenoses by Membrane Effectors
Patent no. DE 38 25 312 C2
With few exceptions, microorganisms naturally do not occur as a monoculture but as a mixed biotic community (microbial mixed biocoenosis). As an example, the cohabitation of rumen, soils or activated sludge in sewage treatment plants may be mentioned. The composition is by no means coincidental, but depends on the interactions between the organisms.
- Competition: Microorganisms partly compete for the same substrates. In this case, one species with certain survival advantages can displace another.
- Antibiosis: In the fight for survival directly other types can be attacked chemically, eg. For example, with antibiotics to defend against competitors. In this case one speaks of antibiosis.
- Substrate chains: If a species re-uses the end product of another species in the metabolism, then both depend on each other. Very often, the accumulation of a final product leads to an inhibition of the previous step (end product inhibition). Both species work as if on a conveyor belt and are thus able to carry out complex biochemical reactions. An example in the aerobic range is the oxidation chain ammonium / nitrite / nitrate by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter or the chain acetogenic bacteria / methanogenic bacteria in the methane fermentation (digestion). Also multi-chain systems are known. These are typical symbioses.
- Suppline: Another possibility of symbiosis is the coexistence of microorganisms, in which one species produces a substance that is essential for another species (a supplin) and can only live if the other species is present. Suppliners play the same role in microorganisms as essential vitamins or amino acids in humans and animals.
The interaction of competition, antibiosis, symbiosis and supplin addiction creates a network of relationships that leads to a very stable and at the same time flexible microbial society. This is maintained as long as the environmental conditions (temperature, pH, substrate supply) do not change drastically. The composition of such communities remains remarkably stable. If you try to introduce new microorganisms artificially, they are quickly displaced again. This elimination mechanism is structurally similar to the immune response of higher animals.
It is of interest to penetrate the intermicrobial communication system in order to influence composition and activity in a controlled way. One possibility for this is the use of membrane effectors. These are substances that act on the membranes of microorganisms to achieve a new stable mixed biocoenosis. The individual microorganisms react differently to these substances. Only then is it possible to obtain an altered mixed biocoenosis.
Since natural products serve as starting materials, it is necessary to analyze and standardize them.
In most cases, the use of membrane effectors in the normal, very small amounts used does not lead to changes, but to large quantities leads to labile new communities. In some cases, however, desirable stable new biocenoses are produced (with very small amounts too). It can be observed that the number of such more stable states (in which the biocenosis represents a self-organizing system) is limited.
2. Membrane effectors
bioTEC SLURRY is composed of a carrier material made of phyllosilicates and embedded membrane effectors. The growing bacteria are in close spatial contact with the active substances, so that these (very expensive) substances can be used in the lowest concentration.
The membrane effectors (1) are:
- Nicotinate (inhibition of adenyl cyclase and fatty acid esterification with glycine-3-phosphate)
- Salicylate (incorporation into the lipid layer of the cell membrane, inhibition of the formation of unsaturated fatty acids, especially arachidonic acid)
- Anthraquinone (inhibits membrane-bound K + / Na + -ATPase)
- Alginic acid silyl ester (accelerates oxygen transport into the cell by phase transfer catalysis)
- Lithium carbonate (reduces the K + content of the cell)
- Urea / SDS adduct (impurity in membrane micelles)
- Guanidinium nitrate (increases transmembrane permeation, increases glucose oxidation)
- K-O-ethyldithiocarbamate (inhibits phosphodiesterase, the c-AMP content increases).
Due to long series of experiments, 144 mixtures have been developed to control microbial mixed biocoenoses. For the practical needs of manure treatment bioTEC SLURRY has been developed.